专家称,首尔人群拥挤证明了事件控制的必要性

  欧洲华文电视台2010年9月9日经意大利最高法院批准成立(批准文号NO.5.2010),商务部注册号01210730714,在意大利国家新闻局注册管理。欧联华文网(www.eztvnet.com)是欧洲华文电视台中国华东新闻中心官方网站,传播中国文化,讲好中国故事,架起中国和世界沟通的桥梁。

首尔的调查人员继续调查154名派对常客在拥挤的人群中丧生在周末的万圣节派对上,人群控制专家表示,这一事件应该提醒人们适当管理的重要性。

“这起事件的第一个导火索不是第一个人摔倒,而是[组织者]批准了这个失败的人群管理计划,”人群安全咨询服务机构人群管理战略的创始人保罗·韦特海默(Paul Wertheimer)告诉美国广播公司新闻。

根据Wertheimer的说法,未来的活动组织者和市政当局可以通过首先关注人群控制计划来避免类似的命运。同时,与会者也可以做好准备,避免在紧急情况下受伤。

周一,韩国国家警察因未能妥善监督而道歉梨泰院附近的派对。他们说,在有超过10万人参加的户外派对期间,只有137名警察在场。

“预计会有大量的人聚集在那里,”警察厅公共秩序管理局局长洪基贤说。

一名中学生和五名高中生在事件中丧生,因为街道和小巷都挤满了试图逃离现场的人。官员们说,在事件中丧生的19名外国人中,至少有两名美国人。

他分析了包括去年在内的多年来致命的人群事件天体世界音乐节上的人群拥挤他说,韩国官员和活动组织者在没有任何计划的情况下举办这么大的派对是不明智的。

他指出,人群安全专家已经警告世界各地的组织者,由于疫情期间他们在原地呆了很长时间,越来越多的年轻人聚集在一起参加活动。

Wertheimer说:“今年我们已经看到很多年轻人希望在更多的人群中做一些大事,应该关注这些人群。”

据英国萨福克大学人群科学客座教授G. Keith Still说,人群控制的一个基本规则是知道在一个给定的空间里可以放置多少密度

尽管如此,几十年来一直咨询活动组织者的世卫组织表示,梨泰院附近的小巷对人群来说似乎太窄了,这应该在万圣节派对开始前发出警报。

“我喜欢用汽车转速表做类比,”斯蒂尔告诉ABC新闻。“在到达计价器的红线之前,你不能开车。人多的地方也一样。如果你不知道红线在哪里,你就不应该拥有那么多人。”

即使只有有限的几名官员,组织者也可以制定一个应急计划,让那么多人保持移动。

他说:“让人们早点停下来,然后在瓶颈处放开,然后停下来,再放开。”。“你在那些路段安排三四名警察,确保他们能看到前方的人群,这样你就能阻止这些危险的人群。”

Wertheimer说,最大的问题是在群体事件方面没有国家或国际监管政策。他说,虽然一些城市、地方和活动场所可能有自己的规定,但仍然是一堆因地而异的规则。

Wertheimer说,由于首尔事件,可能会有新的规则和条例出台。但是这需要全面的根本性改变。

“我们知道只有站立位置的音乐会是最危险的事件之一,”他说。

与此同时,Wertheimer说,活动参与者可以通过了解最近的出口在哪里,为潜在的人群拥挤做好准备。

如果一个与会者因为人多而产生幽闭恐惧症或呼吸困难,Wertheimer建议立即离开,去呼吸新鲜空气。

“如果你有危险,你的生物系统会告诉你。听听,”Wertheimer说。

Wertheimer说,如果一个人被困在拥挤的人群中,不要尖叫或呼救,因为这会耗尽氧气。他说,如果可能的话,用手势来引起别人的注意。

Wertheimer说,最终,人群安全的责任在于组织者和当地官员。

“孩子们永远不应该成为控制人群的人,”他说。"责任止于发起人。"

Seoul crowd crush exemplifies need for event control: Experts

As investigators in Seoul continue to determine how 154 partygoers were killed in a crowd crush during a Halloween party over the weekend, crowd control experts say the incident should serve as a reminder about the importance of proper management.

"The first trigger of this incident wasn't when the first person fell, it happened when [organizers] approved this failed crowd management plan," Paul Wertheimer, the founder of Crowd Management Strategies, a crowd safety consulting service, told ABC News.

According to Wertheimer, future event organizers and municipalities can avoid a similar fate by focusing on the crowd control plans first and foremost. At the same time, attendees can also be prepared to avoid getting hurt in case of an emergency.

On Monday, South Korea’s national police apologized for failing to properly oversee the party in the Itaewon neighborhood. They said only 137 officers were on hand during the outdoor party, which had over 100,000 people.

“It was foreseen that a large number of people would gather there," said Hong Ki-hyun, chief of the National Police Agency’s Public Order Management Bureau.

One middle school student and five high school students were killed in the incident as streets and alleyways were clogged with people trying to flee the scene. At least two Americans were among the 19 foreigners killed during the incident, officials said.

Wertheimer, who has analyzed deadly crowd incidents over the years including last year's crowd crush at the Astroworld music festival, said it was unwise for South Korean officials and event organizers to hold a party that large without any sort of plan.

He noted that crowd safety experts have warned organizers across the world that younger populations are gathering in greater numbers for events due to the amount of time they spent sheltered in place during the pandemic.

"We've seen many events this year where young people want to do something big in larger crowds and attention should have been paid to this crowd," Wertheimer said.

One of the fundamental rules in crowd control is knowing how much density can be put in a given space, according to G. Keith Still, a visiting professor of crowd science at the University of Suffolk in the U.K.

Still, who has consulted event organizers for decades, said the alleyways in the Itaewon neighborhood appeared to have been too narrow for the crowds and that should have raised alarms before the Halloween party started.

"An analogy I like to use is a car tachometer," Still told ABC News. "You never drive a car before it reaches that red line on the meter. It's the same with crowded places. If you don’t know where that red line is, you shouldn't be holding that big of a crowd."

Even with the limited number of officers, organizers could have put together an emergency plan to keep that many people moving, Still noted.

"Hold people back earlier and then release at that bottleneck and then hold and then release," he said. "You put three or four officers at those sections and make sure they can see the crowd ahead [and] you can prevent these critical densities."

The biggest problem is not having a national or international regulatory policy when it comes to crowd events, Wertheimer said. While some cities, localities and event venues may have their own regulations, it's still a patchwork of rules that differ from place to place, he said.

Wertheimer said there will likely be new rules and regulations that come about because of the Seoul incident. But it's going to take a fundamental change across the board.

"We know concerts with standing room only are some of the most dangerous events," he said.

In the meantime, Wertheimer said event attendees can be prepared for potential crowd crushes by knowing where the closest exit is.

If an attendee becomes claustrophobic or short of breath because of the large crowds, Wertheimer recommends to leave immediately and get some air.

"Your biological system will tell you if you're in danger. Listen to it," Wertheimer said.

If a person is stuck in a crowd crush, Wertheimer said not to scream or call for help as it would use up oxygen. Use hand gestures, if possible, to get attention, he said.

Ultimately, Wertheimer said the responsibility for crowd safety lies with organizers and local officials.

"Kids should never be the ones who do crowd control," he said. "The buck stops with the promoter."

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